Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Infection Control and Prevention Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Guy Hagues Fontaine

HDR Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, France

Keynote: Value and limits of modern imaging techniques in the evaluation of fibrosis leading to Atrial Fibrillation

Time : 09:30-10:10

OMICS International Infection Control  2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Guy Hagues Fontaine photo
Biography:

Guy Hugues Fontaine has made 15 original contributions at the inception of cardiac pacemakers in the mid-60s. He has identified ARVD as a side work during the beginning of antiarrhythmic surgery in the late 70s. He has published more than 860 scientific papers including 197 book chapters. He was the Reviewer of 17 journals both in clinical and basic Science. He has also served for 5 years as a Member of the Editorial Board of Circulation. He has been invited to give 11 master’s lectures of 90 minutes each during three weeks in the top universities of China (2014).

Abstract:

A group from Paris has attempted to demonstrate a link between fat in the epicardium of atrial tissue to the production of fibrosis as a possible mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF). In their discussion and conclusion the authors admit that the mechanism of AF is not completely understood. After an excellent review of the CMR techniques available for the identification of fat, fibrosis and water in the heart, they note a lack of spatial resolution of modern imaging techniques that result in their performing ex vivo CMR on two hearts. This However, the modern digital microscope has an optimal resolution which could enable a more precise interpretation of the pathophysiology of AF.

The knowledge accumulated from my study of the histology of ARVD of the right ventricle from 73 patients clearly shows the topographic structure of fat, fibrosis and possible superimposed myocarditis. The atrial structure of the so-called “normal heart” is similar to that observed on the free wall of the right ventricle in ARVD. In addition to epicardial fat, there is fibrosis of two forms, interstitial fibrosis which can be the result of the genetic disorder of the disease or, replacement fibrosis which may be the result of myocarditis generally starting from the epicardium (epicardial-myocarditis as it is known by clinicians).  A superimposed myocarditis may have a spectrum of presentation from the fulminant form leading to acute heart failure and death in a few days associated with invasion of both ventricles and atria by lymphocytes to that of a completely healed hyaline fibrosis. There may be intermediate aspects of myocarditis with a variable number of clusters of lymphocytes inside strands of fibrosis called the chronic-active form. Also, there may be a genetic factor now considered to be of increasing importance in the understanding of ventricular cardiomyopathies. In the background of atrial fibrillation these cardiomyopathies can be present but quiescent without arrhythmias in the general population. There can be additional complexity if we consider that myocarditis alone can cause fibrosis and adipocytes. Therefore, myocarditis can produce an arrhythmogenic substrate. In addition, the acute form can be a trigger of arrhythmias associated with an increase of CRP .The same gene that is responsible for the problem in atrial development can also explain the increased susceptibility of these hearts to be affected by myocarditis in a single or in multiple episodes by entero and adeno viruses. Therefore, the prevention or treatment of lone atrial fibrillation may be due to two targets: protection against and/or suppression of viruses and prevention of fibrosis. In the future, the ideal approach to prevention of atrial fibrillation will be the modification of the human genome using the genetic approaches such as the CRISPRcas9. Finally, the results obtained in the treatment of atrial fibrillation may be expanded to the treatment of the whole heart since the atrium and ventricle are two parts of the same embryologic structure as has been recently confirmed by the finding of “atrial dysplasia” .A simple new tool to evaluate patients at risk of atrial fibrillation and to follow the effect of treatment should be the use of the new 16 lead High Definition ECG recorder.

 

Break: 10:10-10:30

Keynote Forum

Carol Apt

South Carolina State University, USA

Keynote: The stratification system of the United States: Correlations between social class and health

Time : 10:30-11:10

OMICS International Infection Control  2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Carol Apt photo
Biography:

Carol Apt has received her PhD in Sociology from Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, her Master's Degree in Sociology from Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts, and her Bachelor's Degree in Sociology from Indiana University in Indianapolis, Indiana. She also has a certificate of French Studies from Ecole Lemania in Lausanne, Switzerland. She is a Professor of Sociology and the Coordinator of the Sociology Program at South Carolina State University in Orangeburg, South Carolina, where she has been for 20 years. She teaches courses in Human Sexuality, Medical Sociology, Social problems, and the Sociology of Genocide. In 2011, she was honored as the South Carolina State University Professor of the Year. She is a Member of several Editorial Boards and is a Consulting Member of the South Carolina Medical Association Bioethics Committee. In addition to her experience as an author and newspaper and magazine columnist, she is the host of a live, call-in talk radio show entitled, "Talk to Me," which addresses issues of sexuality and relationships. It is broadcast on 90.3 FM, WSSB, an NPR affiliate.

 

Abstract:

The United States is stratified based on class and there is both upward and downward mobility. An individual's social class is determined by three factors: education, occupation, and income. It is often assumed that there are three social classes in the United States: upper, middle, and lower, but this method of categorization is simplistic and does not give an accurate picture of America in the 21st century. This presentation will explain the stratification system as it currently exists in the United States, and will describe key characteristics of individuals living within each stratum. Specifically, the presentation will focus on the health issues faced by Americans who live in the lower social classes, with emphasis on poverty, obesity, and life expectancy.

Keynote Forum

Stef Stienstra

Armed forces of the Netherlands, Netherlands

Keynote: The threat of zoonotic diseases and Ebola virus disease specifically

Time : 11:10-11:50

OMICS International Infection Control  2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Stef Stienstra photo
Biography:

Stef Stienstra works internationally for several Medical and Biotech companies as Scientific Advisory Board Member and is also an Active Reserve-Officer of the Royal Dutch Navy in his rank as Commander (OF4). For the Dutch Armed Forces. He is CBRNe specialist with focus on Microbiological and Chemical threats and Medical- and Environmental functional specialist within the 1st CMI (Civil Military Interaction) Battalion of the Dutch Armed Forces. For Expertise France he is now managing an EU CBRN CoE public health project in west Africa. In his civilian position, he is at this moment developing with MT-Derm in Berlin (Germany), a novel interdermal vaccination technology as well as a new therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis for which he has won a Canadian ‘Grand Challenge’ grant. With Hemanua in Dublin (Ireland), he has developed an innovative blood separation unit, which is also suitable to produce convalescent plasma for Ebola virus disese therapy. He has finished both his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry in The Netherlands with a Doctorate and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-haematology, infectous diseaases, biodefense and transfusion medicine. His natural business acumen and negotiation competence helps to initiate new successful businesses, often generated from unexpected combinations of technologies.

 

Abstract:

Public health systems are not always prepared for outbreaks of infectious diseases. Although in the past several public health institutes, like the French ‘Institute Pasteur’ and the Dutch ‘Tropeninstitute, were prominent surveyors of infectious diseases, the investments in worldwide public health have decreased. Now more attention is given to curative healthcare compared to preventive healthcare. The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa initiated a new wave of interest to invest in Worldwide Public Health to prevent outbreaks of highly contagious diseases. Zoonotic diseases are threatening as the population does not have natural nor artificial (from vaccination) immune response to new diseases like in the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014. The new strain of the Ebola virus in west Africa was slightly less lethal, compared to other Ebola virus strains, but the threat of spreading was far bigger as it had a longer incubation time. Most public health systems are not trained well enough to mitigate highly infectious and deadly disease outbreaks. NGO’s helping to fight the outbreak are often better trained in curative treatments and have less experience with biological (bioweapon) threats for which the military are trained for. The UNMEER mission was unique in this. It was a setting in which military and civilian actors cooperate in fighting a biological threat. Protection is essential for health workers. Smart systems should be developed to prevent further spreading of the disease, but it is not only the biosafety, which should be considered, but also the biosecurity, as misuse of extremely dangerous strains of microorganisms cannot be excluded. Several zoonotic infectious diseases, like anthrax, smallpox and hemorrhagic fevers are listed as potential bioweapons. Therefor both biosafety and biosecurity should be implemented in all measures to fight outbreaks of highly infectious diseases.

Keynote Forum

Christine I Wooddell

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, USA

Keynote: Integrated hepatitis B virus DNA is a source of HBsAg

Time : 11:50-12:30

OMICS International Infection Control  2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Christine I Wooddell photo
Biography:

Christine I Wooddell received her Graduate training in Cell and Molecular Biology with an emphasis on transcription and gene regulation. She then worked on development of gene therapy at Mirus Bio, first on the development of therapeutic gene expression vectors and then on delivery of gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Mirus Bio was acquired by Hoffmann-La Roche and then by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals. She is now the Director of Liver Targeting at Arrowhead where she leads the preclinical research group to develop liver-targeted therapeutics using animal models. Since 2011 her research has focused on the development of RNA interference therapeutics to treat chronic hepatitis B virus infection and liver disease associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). ARC-520 and ARC-521 were developed to treat HBV infection and ARC-AAT to treat AATD liver disease. These three drugs have been advanced to Phase 2 clinical trials. 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Worldwide, 250-400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), leading to 800,000 deaths per year from liver cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Highly expressed viral proteins, thought to be transcribed from viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), play a role in chronicity. Nucleos (t) ide viral replication inhibitors (NUCs) do not reduce viral proteins. RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic ARC-520 was developed to reduce all viral proteins and pre-genomic RNA. In human clinical trials, Heparc-2001 with ARC-520, HBV S antigen (HBsAg) was strongly reduced in treatment where naïve patients were positive for HBV e antigen (HBeAg) but was significantly less reduced in patients that were HBeAg negative or had received long-term therapy with NUCs.

 

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The molecular basis for this unexpected differential response was investigated by multiple approaches in chimpanzees chronically infected with HBV and treated with monthly dosing of ARC-520 in the presence of NUCs. Liver HBV mRNA was quantified and sequenced using RT-qPCR, mRNA-seq and Iso-seq. Liver HBV DNA was also quantified and sequenced.

 

Findings: HBsAg was expressed not only in the episomal cccDNA mini chromosome, but also in transcription of HBV DNA integrated into the host genome, which was a significant source in HBeAg negative chimpanzees. Many of these integrant-derived transcripts lacked target sites for the siRNAs in ARC-520, explaining the reduced response in HBeAg negative chimpanzees and by extension in HBeAg negative patients. Treatment of the HBeAg negative chimpanzees with siRNA hypothesized to target mRNA produced by integrated HBV resulted in deep HBsAg reductions similar to those in the HBeAg positive chimpanzees.

 

Conclusion & Significance: These results uncover an under-recognized source of HBsAg that may play a key role in maintaining chronicity, a finding expected to alter clinical trial design and endpoint expectations for new HBV therapies. Treatment of chronically HBV-infected chimpanzees with ARC-520.

 

 

 

 

OMICS International Infection Control  2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Paul Kadetz photo
Biography:

Paul Kadetz holds the Robert Fisher Oxnam Chair of Science and Society at Drew University. He is also a Senior Research Fellow at The University of Liverpool in China and an Associate and Lecturer of the China Centre for Health and Humanity, University College London. Paul is a Medical Anthropologist and a Clinician. In addition to his current research examining sociocultural factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance in rural China, he has conducted and published research concerning: Post-disaster recovery, global health policy, the anthropology of safety, the impact of foreign aid on local healthcare systems and healthcare challenges in China, The Philippines, Cuba, Guatemala, Madagascar and Morocco. His co-edited volume, The Handbook of Welfare in China, was recently published by Edward Elgar.

Abstract:

There is an assumption among biomedical practitioners that biomedicine is always understood and practiced in the same way in every culture and that, somehow, biomedicine is free from sociocultural influences. This mixed-methods pilot research employing structured interviews and observation in clinical settings and retail pharmacies- in rural Anhui, China, funded by the Medical Research Council and Newton Fund (UK) and the National Science Foundation of China identifies how sociocultural translations of biomedicine and local classifications of disease and pharmacotherapies can be imperative, but heretofore unrecognized, factors in antibiotic resistance. In addition to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock, that has entered the general food chain in China, our pilot study has identified misdiagnosis, overuse of antibiotics in treatment, and abundant purchase of antibiotics without prescriptions from retail pharmacies, as potential factors in antibiotic resistance in China. We observed little differentiation between bacterial and viral infections in clinical diagnosis and treatment; with both being commonly categorized as inflammation or infection by physicians, retail pharmacy workers and patients. Similarly, treatment was often for medicine that eliminates infection and for literally resist life medicine. Though physicians may intellectually understand the differential diagnoses between viruses and bacteria, in practice patients are often treated with intravenous antibiotics regardless of the actual etiology. This focus on treating most infections with antibiotics is mirrored in the self-treatment of retail pharmacy customers (almost all of whom were observed purchasing antibiotics without a prescription) and in the recommendations of retail pharmacy workers. These initial findings from the pilot study will guide the main research over the next two years, in which, among other areas, we will further investigate the role of political economy and the pricing and availability of antibiotics in their markedly frequent use.

Break: 13:10-14:10
  • Infection Treatment and Prevention Control | Pediatric Infections Prevention and Control | Resistance and Emerging Infectious Organisms | Infection Novel Therapies | Control of Zika/Malaria/Dengue Viral Infections | Hepatitis C | Surgical Infections Control | Control of HIV/AIDS from STDs & STIs | Antimicrobial Resistance| Microbial Pathogenesis
Speaker

Chair

Paul Kadetz

Drew University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Saungi McCalla

White Plains Hospital, USA

Session Introduction

Saungi McCalla

White Plains Hospital, USA

Title: Automated hand hygiene compliance system associated with improved monitoring of hand hygiene

Time : 14:10-14:35

Speaker
Biography:

Saungi McCalla is Registered Nurse for over 24 years and has been working in Infection Prevention and Control for 16 years. She is board certified in Infection Control. She is currently the Director of Infection Prevention and Control at Community Hospital in Westchester County, New York. She is passionate about her role in infection prevention and the impact it has on staff, patients and visitors, and work hard to be an advocate and to lead by example. She considers herself a change agent and will collaborate with all key players to implement evidenced-based in initiatives that will yield positive outcomes. She has also authored articles including a white paper on topics related to infection prevention and patient safety. In addition, she has been accepted as a Fellow of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). She was the proud recipient of the 2014 APIC Chapter Leadership Award presented at APIC National.

Abstract:

Statement of the problem: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a substantial concern in US hospitals. Approximately one in 25 patients in the US has at least one HAI during a hospital stay and an estimated 80,000 people die annually in the US from an HAI. Consistent hand hygiene is key to reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and assessing compliance with hand hygiene protocols is vital for hospital infection control staff. The conventional approach is to employ a team of observers who can record hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) and the number of times caregivers comply with protocol. However, relying on human observation has limitations. The purpose of this study is to determine if implementation of the automated HHCS is associated with improved hand hygiene compliance and a significant reduction in MDROs, CLABSIs, and CAUTIs in the hospital’s ICU and ICU stepdown unit compared to the use of human observers.
Methodology: Using a retrospective cohort design, researchers investigated whether implementation of the HHCS resulted in improved hand hygiene compliance and a reduction in common HAI rates. Pearson Chi-square tests were used to assess changes in compliance, and incidence rate ratios were used to test for significant differences in infection rates.
Results: During the study period, the HHCS collected many more hand hygiene events compared to human observers (632,404 vs 480) and ensured that the hospital met its compliance goals (95%+). While decreases in MDRO, CLABSI, and CAUTI infection rates were observed, they represented non-significant differences. Discussion & Conclusions: Human hand hygiene observers may not report accurate measures of compliance. The HHCS is a
promising new tool for fine-grained assessment of hand hygiene compliance. Further study is needed to examine the association
between the HHCS and HAI rate reduction.

Yaa Boateng-Marfo

National University of Singapore, Singapore

Title: Zein-loaded artemether nanoparticles for treatment of severe malaria

Time : 14:35-15:00

Speaker
Biography:

Yaa Boateng is a PhD candidate at National University of Singapore, Singapore. Her research interest is in formulation design via nanotechnology. She has been working of developing nanoformulations for severe malaria treatment for her PhD thesis. Prior to her PhD candidature, she worked as a community pharmacist and a production
pharmacist.

Abstract:

Half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria infection. Severe malaria is life threatening and causes one death per minute each day. WHO recommends parenteral administration of artesunate, artemether and quinine till patients can tolerate oral dosage forms. Intravenous artemether formulations have shown potentially better therapeutic efficacy but it’s use is limited by poor  watersolubility and short plasma half-life. Nanoparticles are becoming indispensable in many industries including the pharmaceutical industry for the advantages they offer including extended release and targeted delivery. Synthetic polymers and surfactants usually used as carriers and stabilizers, respectively. However, these agents can elicit immune reactions and produce toxic metabolites, resulting in increased toxicity to the host. Proteins such as zein on the other hand have low toxicity, low immunogenicity, and biodegradable. Considering that: zein is water insoluble and suitable for extended release formulations, longer contact is required between malaria parasite and drug to minimize development of resistance and the intravenous nanoparticles has been successfully applied for clinical use, zein-loaded artemether nanoparticles are been developed and characterized in this work. Artemether and zein were dissolved in ethanol-water mixture, aqueous sodium caseinate solution was added at once. Ethanol was then removed and the nanosuspension was frozen and freeze dried. Particles with size 120-200 nm were obtained with 80% ethanol content been optimum for smaller particles. Higher sodium caseinate –zein ratio, lower zein artemether ratio and evaporation time of 3 h favored the formation of smaller particles. Encapsulation efficiency of 52% was obtained.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohamed A Abouelkhair has completed his Master’s degree from University of Sadat City, Egypt. He is an Assistant Lecturer in Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology department, University of Sadat city, Egypt. Currently, he is a Graduate PhD student in Comparative and Experimental Medicine Graduate program, college of veterinary medicine, University of Tennessee, USA.

Abstract:

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is the most common cause of canine pyoderma. It is frequently associated with urinary tract, wound and surgical site infections and occasionally causes zoonotic infections in human beings. The development of a staphylococcal vaccine is challenging and prior infection with S.pseudintermedius is not associated with protective immunity. Identification of a novel virulence factor inhibiting phagocytosis and evasion of innate immunity could play an important role in the prevention or treatment of S. pseudintermedius infection. Here, through bioinformaticsbased analysis of S. pseudintermedius genome sequences, we identified a putative adenosine synthase gene (SpdsA) encoding a 5′-nucleotidase. S.pseudintermedius SpdsA protein shares approximately 73.46 % similarity with that of Staphylococcus aureus and 46.44% similarity with that of S. suis type2. Like the orthologous protein in S. aureus it catalyzes the dephosphorylation of adenosine mono- and triphosphates and consequently produces the immune signaling molecule adenosine. Attenuation of this enzyme with selected amino acid substations result in diminished hydrolytic activity on adenosine mono-and triphosphates and low adenosine production. Adenosine perturbation enable escape of S. pseudintermedius from phagocytic clearance in dog blood. In contrast, the addition of SpdsA inhibitor or A2A receptor antagonist to phagocytic cells result in diminished ability of S. pseudintermedius to escape from phagocytic killing. Taken together, these results indicate that SpdsA may play an important role in promoting S.pseudintermedius survival and in inhibiting neutrophil activity by adenosine synthesis.

Biography:

Ruhul H Kuddus is a professor of Biology at Utah Valley University. He teaches Clinical Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Immunology. He has a diverse research interest. Data presented here was collected at Dhaka Bangladesh in 2011-12, when he served there as a Fulbright Scholar and a Visiting Professor at University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract:

Background: It is established that improper use of antibiotics leads to rapid development of bacterial antibiotic resistance. How the conditions affect the change of antibiotic sensitivity over time is less investigated. We investigated changes in antibiotic sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in a megacity where improper antibiotic use is common.
Materials & Methods: Data on the percent of clinical isolates sensitive or resistant to 28 commonly used antibiotics was obtained from two large hospitals. Changes in drug sensitivity of the isolates at time point A and at about three years later (i.e. time point B) were compared using a one-sided test for equality of proportions. For large samples, tests using Z-score and normal distribution were conducted; for small samples, Fisher’s exact test was performed.
Results: The antibiotic sensitivity of 194 different pairs of isolate-clusters were compared. Of them 66.5% of the cluster-pairs showed no change. The time point B isolate-clusters showed a significantly lower sensitivity in 21.1% of the cases, and a significantly higher sensitivity in 12.4% of the cases, when compared to the corresponding time point A clusters. The decreased sensitivity was observed in 20.0% of the Gram-negative and 24.1% of the Gram-positive bacterial isolate clusters; and the increased sensitivity was observed in 10.0% of Gram-negative and 18.5% of Gram-positive bacterial clusters.
Conclusions: Bacterial antibiotic resistance and sensitivity may change significantly over a period of three years. Continuous vigilancemon bacterial antibiotic sensitivity may keep effective and affordable antibiotics clinically relevant.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Soualhine has extensive experience in reference diagnosis of TB and mycobacteria, He did post-doctoral fellowss in France on genome sequencing, in Quebec on genomic and proteomic of drug resistance and at UBC on development of new recombinant BCG vaccine. His research career has been devoted to antimicrobial resistance in M. tuberculosis. He is interested in mycobacterial pathogenicity, molecular methods for rapid characterization and genotyping with special interest in Crohn’s disease and cystic fibrosis.

Abstract:

Mycobacterium chimaera outbreaks affecting patients subjected to open-chest heart surgery have been reported worldwide and associated with a high case fatality rate, reinforcing the need for strongly coordinated surveillance and outbreak control. The ECDC, Health Canada, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others issued warnings regarding the
potential risk of infection with M. chimaera for patients underwent open-heart surgery since 2012. The public health reference laboratory in Quebec undertook a laboratory active surveillance screening of all sterile site samples collected from patients presenting with M. chimaera -positive results between 2010 and 2016. The surveillance of environmental and clinical cases was extended to
the nine busiest cardiac surgery centers in Quebec. In this study, we attempted to determine the source of M. chimaera infection by establishing a molecular link between patients (n=7) and environmental strains (n=32). We developed a genome-wide strain genotyping approach and investigated the relatedness of M. chimaera isolates from patients and heat-cooler units (HCUs) from different geographical locations in Quebec. Four clinical isolates were associated to the European outbreak. We also implemented a new rapid molecular test based on quantitative real-time PCR targeting the ITS regions. This allowed us to detect rapidly the presence of M. chimaera in water samples and compare results with culture, follow up the bacterial burden in 26 contaminated HCUs. In conclusion, four patients infected with M. chimaera during cardiac surgery were related to one site in Montreal and were associated to the worldwide outbreak. Moreover RT-PCR allowed us to monitor and follow up the contamination in HCU in operating rooms.

Speaker
Biography:

Responsible for planning, administration, and monitoring of consistent readiness of all quality management, regulatory requirements, and quality-improvement processes. As a member of the senior management team, initiates and oversees the development of a comprehensive quality/performance improvement program. In collaboration with hospital leadership, staff, medical staff leadership, and the Board of Trustees, directs and coordinates quality/performance improvement and hospital initiatives.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: CLABSIs are considered important problem among ICU patients as they are significantly associated with increased mortality and morbidity, increased hospitalization, and higher cost. During the calendar 2014, the CLABSI rates for medical surgical ICU patients were 3.25 per 1000 catheter days. Our goal was ZERO CLABSIs. The purpose of this study is to use the Lean Six Sigma process to reduce CLABSIs in adult ICU. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A multidisciplinary team of nurses, infection control officer, quality manager, residents and nurse educator utilized the Lean Six Sigma process improvement plan model to study the root causes and solutions to prevent CLABSIs, plan process improvements and to develop a plan for maintaining improvement over time. A retrospective chart review of all 2014 CLABSIs was conducted to identify infecting organisms, type of catheter, insertion site location and number days between insertion and infection. Registered nurses were interviewed to assess their understanding level of CLABSI prevention policy and asked for ideas about the causes of CLABSIS and what they could do to prevent these infections. Observations were made to evaluate compliance with central line insertion and maintenance Bundle. Findings: Lack of compliance with CL insertion policy by Hospital Residents was identified. Prior to the project, the CLABSI rate for adult medical ICU was 3.25 per 1000 catheter days. After launching the project, we achieved 0 rates. Compliance rate with central line insertion bundle was increased from 71% to 89%. Compliance rate with central line maintenance bundle was increased from insertion from 79% to 97%.
Lesson learned:
1. Lean Six sigma allowed in depth examination of potential causes and solution to prevent CLABSIs.
2. To improve patient safety by eliminating life-threatening errors.

Shirley Gutkowski

Primal Air LLC, USA

Title: Improving breathing with a novel use of xylitol

Time : 17:45-18:10

Speaker
Biography:

Shirley Gutkowski has practiced Clinical Dental Hygienist from 1986 to 2003, when she focused her energy on product research, writing and speaking. She is the 2008 Alumna of the Year Marquette University School of Health Science in Dental Hygiene, a recipient of the Leadership Award from the World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, and 2006 – 2007 president of the Wisconsin Dental Hygienists’ Association. Her podcast Cross Link Presentations highlights notables such as Patrick McGowan (author of The Oxygen Advantage and premier Buteyko instructor), Dr. Kevin Boyd (Darwinian Dentist), Gill Rapley (author of Baby Led Weaning), Dr. Allison Hazelbaker,
Dr. Mike Nelson (metabolic flexibility) and others. As the science continues to point to correlations between oral and systemic health, the function of the nasal airway is also under scrutiny. She has published extensively on these topics. She is a featured speaker on the upcoming The Functional Oral Health Summit.

Abstract:

Epigenetic changes in the shape of the face have modified the airway leading to changes in breathing, like mouth breathing. Mouth breathing in children has consequences leading to decreased nasal volume and dental malocclusions. Allergy profiles have also increased over the last century topping 15 million Americans, today improving the odds for mouth breathing and its consequences. Allergy symptoms often include a sinus component that may be relieved, reduced, or eliminated using a saline nasal spray complimented by xylitol. The mechanism of action, recommended usage, and safety profile of this novel functional ingredient are discussed.

Abbas Ali Husseini

Ankara University, Turkey

Title: Seroepidemiology of HIV-1 and HTLV I\II in Afghanistan

Time : 18:10-18:35

Speaker
Biography:

Abbas Ali Husseını has completed his PhD at Ankara University. His research interests lie in the area of infectious disease. He has researched on epidemiology
and molecular profile of HIV, HTLV, HBV, HCV and HDV. He has experience of designing different NA isolation kits and HBV, HCV, HIV and CMV quantitative real time PCR Kits.

Abstract:

Background: Infections caused by HBV, HCV and HDV are global public health problem. Few studies on these diseases have been done among risk groups and less attention has been made to assess the general population. For a better evaluation of HBV, HCV and HDV epidemiologic situation we assessed the Anti-HBc, Anti-HBs, HBsAg, Anti-HCV and Anti-HDV in adults. The results of our study reflect the susceptible population, acquired immunity rate via natural infection and exposure and infection rate among population.
Methodology: Totally 492 samples selected randomly from Nangarhar, Herat, Mazar-e Sharif, Kandahar and Kabul with age group of 25-70 years old. Among the participants 269 [54.67%] were female and 223 [45.32%] were male. Anti-HBc, Anti-HBs, HBsAg, Anti-HCV and Anti-HDV were detected by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). HBV and HCV
viral load was determined also.
Results: The HBV exposure rate and infection rate were 149 [30.28%] and 31 [6.3%] respectively. We have not found Anti-HDV positive in our HBsAg positive samples. Among the studied individuals 136 [27.64%] samples presented titers of Anti-HBs≥10.0 mIU/mL and 59,95% of population was susceptible against HBV. Only 8 [1.62%] persons were positive for Anti-
HCV, four [50%] of them had a history of exposure to hepatitis B as well. Kandahar shows the lowest rate of prevalence in all markers. Exposure rate in nangarhar and acquired immunity rate in Mazar-e-sharif were the highest compare to other regions. Herat includes the most infected population among all other regions. The acquired immunity due to natural infection rate
shows a significant increase with age (P=0.001053) but susceptible rate shows a negative correlation with age (P=0.012701). The viral load of HBV DNA, ranged from 6.1×101 to 1.2× 109 IU/mL and high level viral load rate was 25.8%. There was also a positive correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA level (P-value=0.00167). In the cases of Anti-HCV positive, viral load was
detected in the range from 9.5×100 to 6.7×104 IU/mL and all of them were considered as a low viral load.
Conclusion: Most of the population, especially the younger generation, is sensitive and the risk of exposure is high in the population. Public awareness and increased health education are recommended to prevent hepatitis.

  • Special Session
Speaker
Biography:

Stef Stienstra works internationally for several Medical and Biotech companies as Scientific Advisory Board Member and is also an Active Reserve-Officer of the Royal Dutch Navy in his rank as Commander (OF4). For the Dutch Armed Forces. He is CBRNe specialist with focus on Microbiological and Chemical threats and Medical- and Environmental functional specialist within the 1st CMI (Civil Military Interaction) Battalion of the Dutch Armed Forces. For Expertise France he is now managing an EU CBRN CoE public health project in west Africa. In his civilian position, he is at this moment developing with MT-Derm in Berlin (Germany), a novel interdermal vaccination technology as well as a new therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis for which he has won a Canadian ‘Grand Challenge’ grant. With Hemanua in Dublin (Ireland), he has developed an innovative blood separation unit, which is also suitable to produce convalescent plasma for Ebola virus disese therapy. He has finished both his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry in The Netherlands with a Doctorate and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immunohaematology, infectous diseaases, biodefense and transfusion medicine. His natural business acumen and negotiation competence helps to initiate new successful businesses, often generated from unexpected combinations of technologies.

Abstract:

Sharing public health threat information is a necessity for governments to prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases. Zoonotic diseases are the most dangerous for outbreaks running out of control, as the population does not have natural nor artificial (from vaccination) immune response to new emerging diseases. The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was such an example. New diagnostic methods, which can be performed in developing countries lacking critical infrastructure should be developed to have an early response on (potential) outbreaks. It must be high tech with high reliability, which can be used in rural areas without proper infrastructure. The mitigation of highly infectious and deadly disease pandemics should be recognized at the source. Sophisticated diagnostic equipment and good calibration, maintenance and interpretation of the results is essential. To identify pathogens at molecular level, new technologies are under development. In developing countries military and civilian actors cooperate fruitfully in fighting potential biological threats. In this civil-military cooperation it is not only the biosafety, which should be considered, but also the biosecurity, as misuse of extremely dangerous strains of microorganisms cannot be excluded. Several zoonotic infectious diseases, like anthrax, small pox and the haemorrhagic fevers like Ebola virus disease are listed as potential bioweapons. With this extra threat in mind, both biosafety and biosecurity should be implemented in all mobile or fixed clinical laboratories. An information/computer network with a cloud in which essential information can be traced, helps in early detection of outbreaks of ‘new’, mostly zoonotic, infectious diseases. The same technology helps in the forensic aspects in case of a bioterror attack.